Advanced Knowledge Advanced Knowledge

Being able to apply advanced knowledge in specialized areas requires that you know how to develop research questions and methods specific to your discipline, and demonstrate that you have mastery of your field.


Advanced Knowledge skills & steps you can take to develop them *

Steps You Can Take

Take Required and Elective Courses in Your Program
Attend Research Talks, Colloquia, and Seminars in your Field
Explore Course Offerings and Working Groups Across Campus to Augment Skills
Regularly Review Disciplinary Journals and Other New Publications in Your Field
Prepare for and Take Preliminary and/or Qualifying Exams

Preliminary and/or Qualifying Exams allow you to demonstrate advanced knowledge, and should be taken on schedule to allow you to move on to completing your degree.

Complete a Master’s Project

Completion of a master’s project develops and demonstrates skills in research and mastery of advanced knowledge in a discipline that are valued in multiple career paths.

Write a Master’s thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Writing a thesis or dissertation shows mastery of advanced knowledge in a discipline and the ability to communicate that knowledge to technical and professional readers.

The applicability of discipline-specific research skills often extends well beyond a given home department, and can be cultivated both through routine components of the advanced degree (like coursework) and through more atypical outlets (such as a graduate internship). As you progress toward completion of the degree, keep up to date on the opportunities that exist for translating disciplinary skills into diverse career paths.

Steps You Can Take

Take On-Campus Courses or Form Campus Research Groups

Many departments offer formal training in the research methods associated with their discipline, allowing students to experiment with different approaches to answering research questions. Because these courses are often offered at an introductory level, it may be useful to revisit or sit in on the course again in a later semester after having formulated an independent research project.


Participate in Working Groups

Advanced students may also wish to form research groups based on shared methods or questions that allow them to discuss the opportunities and issues associated with their approach. Creating and participating in research-based discussion groups can help not only to advance your research, but to cultivate leadership and collaboration skills valued in many professions. Some programs on campus, such as the Doreen B. Townsend Center for the Humanities, provide support for such working groups.


Participate in Lab Rotations

Many lab-based disciplines have formal programs of lab rotations that allow students to explore a potential research area and develop practical skills. The research rotation offers the opportunity to learn new experimental techniques, gain familiarity with different areas of research, experience the operating procedures of diverse types of labs, and identify mentors within the discipline. While the academic objective is to identify a lab in which to conduct dissertation research, skills gained on rotation can also provide relevant training for research projects and career prospects beyond the dissertation.


In recent years, some non-lab-based disciplines have found it useful to model their operations on the lab-based disciplines. See, for example, “Designing a Lab in the Humanities,” Chronicle of Higher Education (2017). Even without committing to full-time laboratorial work, many humanists and social scientists are increasingly employing technical and digital research methods that tend to prove especially portable to extra-academic professional contexts.


Serve as a Graduate Student Researcher (GSR)

As in the lab rotation, participation in research projects as a GSR allows students to gain experience, identify strengths, and develop specialized interests. Work with your GSR supervisor to ensure that you are able to make the most of the opportunity: if you want to gain experience approaching the research question through the use of specific tools or methods, it is worth discussing the possibility with your research supervisor.


Be sure to keep track of the different skills you cultivate as part of the assistantship—when requesting recommendation letters to apply for jobs in subsequent years, it will be useful to remind your supervisor of the specific work you did for them. You may be surprised by how many of the disciplinary research skills honed in an assistantship correlate to desired qualifications for various professional positions and translate readily between academic and non-academic contexts. For examples, see Margaret Newhouse, “Transferring Your Skills to a Non-Academic Setting,” Chronicle of Higher Education (1998) and Stacy Hartman, “Transferable Skills and How To Talk About Them,” MLA Connected Academics (2016).


Participate in Internships

An internship is a temporary professional position that enables you to explore a potential career while developing practical skills and applying advanced knowledge. Internships provide an excellent way to develop skills that may be harder to gain within the scope of the graduate degree program, and so represent a valuable link between academic and professional experience.


The Berkeley Career Center offers advice and counseling about specific internships, as well as about the broader value of participating in an internship. The Center maintains resource lists of internship opportunities sorted by discipline or campus, sponsors an “externship” program for current students to shadow recent Cal alumni, and provides specific advice about the role of graduate internships in professional development. The Center has also published a short booklet on strategies for developing your own tailor-made internship position—an ideal way to build a unique portfolio of skills.


For tips and a perspective on undertaking graduate internships, see “Internship Tips for Graduate Students” and “Working Outside the Box: My Internship Experience,” Humanists at Work.


Complete Training in Responsible Conduct of Research

Your research may require you to protect the privacy of human subjects; to observe standards for research using animals; and to respect the rights of others to be recognized as contributors through proper citation, co-authorship, and granting of permissions for use of material covered by copyright. Online courses, workshops, and staff in the Sponsored Projects Office (SPO) can help you learn about these subjects, and more.


Learning to use appropriate research methods and apply standards for responsible conduct provides a practical certification for any future research-based career, but also engages broader critical-thinking skills about the ethics of research practices and protocols. The ability to conduct research responsibly in an academic setting testifies to the rigor and dedication that can make Ph.D.s appealing candidates for a variety of academic and professional careers.


Write a Research Prospectus

Doctoral students may be required to prepare a formal research prospectus as part of their progress to degree. Even if the prospectus is not required, there is intellectual and professional value to be found in writing one. A research prospectus, like a grant proposal, shows that you know how to define the scope of a project, understand the steps needed to complete it, and recognize the kind and scale of resources needed—skills valuable in academic and other professional careers.


Guidelines and expectations for the research prospectus vary by field, but many include or address the following types of categories: research problems, research questions, assumptions, theoretical issues, literature review, general research plan, anticipated difficulties, anticipated contributions. Your department may retain a file of prospectuses submitted by previous students, or you may wish to consult more advanced students to track down samples.


Write a Grant Proposal

Mastering the skill of grant writing is vital to the completion and promotion of your research, as well as to success in a variety of academic and professional careers. To support their research, graduate students at Berkeley often write proposals for University or external funding (including organizations such as the American Association of University Women [AAUW], the Fulbright program, National Institutes of Health [NIH], National Science Foundation [NSF], Social Science Research Council [SSRC], and many more). By learning to frame your project for different audiences and purposes, you will develop a vocabulary for both the academic and professional applications of your research methods and findings. Establishing a successful grant history will in turn prove your ability to attract sponsors and build financial support for the work you undertake—a highly desirable commodity in both academic and professional careers. Workshops on writing research grant proposals are offered by the Graduate Writing Center.


For a list of major University and extramural funding sources, see “Graduate Fellowships and Awards,” Berkeley Graduate Division. The UC Berkeley Research Development Office provides a general list of proposal-writing resources and specific information about preparing proposals for major grants from institutions like the NIH and NSF. Field-specific grant-writing resources are often provided by professional associations.


See also these resources:


Complete a Master’s Project

Completion of a master’s project demonstrates mastery of advanced knowledge in a discipline, but also develops research skills that are valued in multiple career paths. The master’s project further provides a place to test ideas and approaches before committing to a lengthier research project like the dissertation, and can be useful as a strategic, transitional document: because it is often shorter than the dissertation, it can be especially amenable to development into a published article or report—whether in an academic forum like a peer-reviewed journal or in a public forum such as a newspaper.

As you work to define and develop a research project, consider seeking relevant opportunities to build a diverse portfolio of professional skills or to bridge your research with interdisciplinary or extra-academic questions, issues, and approaches.

Steps You Can Take

Take Research Methods Courses in Other Academic Units

Particularly for students who work across disciplines, it may be relevant and useful to enroll in or audit methods courses offered in other fields. This is also a good way to broaden your skill-set in preparation for a variety of academic and non-academic careers. For instance, students in fields that rely primarily on quantitative data may benefit from taking a writing course in preparation for careers that require translating specialized findings for popular audiences or that broadly value strong communication skills. Similarly, many students in humanist and social science fields increasingly discover that their qualitative research may be enhanced through the use of new digital technologies.


Browsing the Berkeley course catalog will offer a sense of the wide variety of courses on offer at the university. Note that you may need the permission of the instructor to take a course in another department, and that it is best to request this permission well in advance of the beginning of the course.


Take Time to Explore Scholarly Publications to Get an Overview of Diverse Research Approaches

While your department may specialize in a particular set of research approaches or methods, you may also wish to review other methods practiced by colleagues in the field, by academics in other disciplines, or (depending on your field) by practitioners associated with your field of study. Reviewing scholarly publications may inspire new research approaches or expand skills not necessarily honed in your home department, pinpointing new ways to distinguish and diversify your professional portfolio.


The UC Berkeley library offers research guides categorized by subject to help students get a head-start with this type of exploration. In addition, the library offers a general tutorial on beginning a research project, and subject librarians are available for consultation on particular research projects.


Attend Research Talks, Colloquia, and Seminars in Other Disciplines and Fields

Attending research talks, colloquia, and short seminars is a useful way to gain a sense of other disciplines and their research approaches without committing to a semester-long course or expending the energy required to survey the literature of a field. The UC Berkeley Events calendar—searchable by day, week, or month—is a good place to look for the many events that occur each day on campus. You may also wish to look to the websites of specific departments, centers, or concentrations related to your interests, as well as local institutions like museums and libraries.


Attending research talks, colloquia, and seminars also provides great opportunities for networking with potential future colleagues, mentors, and employers. For more on how (and why) to build networking skills, see the Professionalization section of this guide.


Acquire Foreign Language Skills in Relation to Research 

Certain fields may require students to acquire foreign language skills as part of their progress to degree. But students may also wish to acquire these language skills independently, either as a supplement to their academic research or as a bridge to a variety of future careers. UC Berkeley offers instruction in over 80 languages, and fellowships such as the FLAS or Fulbright are available for graduate students undertaking language study. With its emphasis on the study of critical and less commonly taught foreign languages, the FLAS program is designed to lead into careers in university teaching, government service, or other employment where knowledge of foreign languages and cultures is essential. Participation in the Fulbright program, which offers an English Teaching Assistant program and fellowships for study and research abroad, opens up a wide variety of career paths for graduate students, including foreign service, academia, and many more.


Think Strategically About How Your Research Fits Diverse Career Paths

More non-academic careers rely on or benefit from a background in research than you might think. To identify positions, industries, and careers that utilize the research skills you have already begun building, check in regularly with the following types of resources:


  • The Berkeley Career Center’s site on “Careers Beyond the Academy,” designed to help you explore and pursue the vast range of career options available to advanced degree candidates.
  • Beyond Academia, a graduate-led Berkeley organization and annual conference that exposes fellow Berkeley Ph.D. students and postdocs to career options outside of academia.
  • Career Development Initiative for the Physical Sciences (CDIPS), a graduate-run organization at Berkeley that provides information to graduate students and postdocs in the physical and mathematical sciences about their options outside academia through a speaker series, the Data Science Workshop, and improved access to alumni.
  • Humanists at Work,” a UC-wide initiative geared towards UC Humanities and humanistic Social Science MAs and PhDs interested in careers outside or alongside the academy.
  • The Versatile PhD, a web-based resource that can assist you in exploring careers, reframing skills, and applying for positions beyond academia. All UC Berkeley graduate students have free access to Versatile PhD resources.
  • The ImaginePhD, a career-planning tool that seeks to bridge the knowledge gap between Ph.D. training and the realm of career possibilities for humanities and social science Ph.D.s.  Spearheaded primarily by UC Davis and UCLA, the group is creating an online tool to assist graduate students in career exploration, goal-setting, and professional development. This online tool is available free of charge to Berkeley students.
  • The Postdoc Industry Exploration Program (PIEP) arranges site visits to companies so that postdocs and graduate students can learn about career options directly from professionals who hold these positions and gain useful connections in the process.
  • Mellon/ACLS Public Fellows Program: Expanding the Reach of Doctoral Education in the Humanities: Now in its seventh year, the ACLS Public Fellows Program places up to 22 recent humanities Ph.D.s in two-year positions at diverse organizations in government and the nonprofit sector. This career-building initiative aims to demonstrate that the capacities developed in the advanced study of the humanities have wide applications, both within and beyond the academy. The fellowship carries a stipend of $67,500, with health insurance for the fellow and up to $3,000 for professional development activities.
  • Connected Academics: Preparing Doctoral Students of Language and Literature for a Variety of Careers: A project of the Modern Language Association (MLA), funded by the Mellon Foundation, that supports diverse initiatives (including UC’s Humanities Research Institute) to demonstrate how doctoral education can develop students’ capacities to bring the expertise they acquire in advanced humanistic study to a wide range of fulfilling, secure, and well-compensated professional situations.
  • Career Diversity for Historians:The American Historical Association (AHA), in conjunction with the Mellon Foundation, has developed a set of institutes and resources to assist faculty and graduate students in preparing for careers beyond the academy. These resources are also useful to faculty and graduate students beyond history.

You may also find it helpful to browse job ads for positions that interest you to determine what skills are typically required for work in that field. For advice on undertaking wide-ranging career exploration, see “Beginning with the Lack of an End in Mind: Growth and Experimentation in the Job Search,” Humanists at Work and “On Serendipity; or, How to Be a Lucky Job Hunter,” Connected Academics.


Present Research to Academic, Professional, or Community Groups

Fostering interest in your research both within and beyond academia can generate career possibilities. Identify audiences for whom your research is relevant and seek opportunities to speak about it in public venues such as local libraries, museums, and relevant professional or community institutions. You may find that stepping outside the academic setting affords a fresh perspective on your research and provides invaluable experience for a variety of professional opportunities. Public presentations further demonstrate your capacity to articulate high-level concepts in an accessible fashion—a boon in many industries.


Protect, Promote, and Properly Attribute Your Research

Learning to protect your original research ensures that your contributions will be recognized in any future careers you undertake, while demonstrating a commitment to proper attribution of the work of others makes you an appealing candidate for industries that depend upon collaborative work.


The UC Berkeley Library’s Scholarly Communications Officer, Rachael Samberg, is available to advise students about research, copyright issues, intellectual property, and licensing; she has also published a variety of skill guides that are available online.


In addition, Research IT provides Research Data Management services for the UC Berkeley campus. This program addresses current and emerging data management issues, compliance with policy requirements imposed by funders and by the University, and reduction of risk associated with the challenges of data stewardship. The Berkeley D-Lab also hosts a working group focused on the topic of Securing Research Data.

Steps You Can Take

Take On-Campus Courses

One of the ways to strengthen computer programming skills is to take coursework offered at Berkeley. Courses in a number of specific programming languages are offered for students of varying skill levels in departments across campus.

Take Computer Programming or Methods Workshops

Workshops are offered in a number of specific programming languages at research centers and in departments all over campus. Experiment with new techniques in a familiar language or learn a brand new one from some of the premier experts on the Berkeley faculty.

Participate in Programming or Methods Working Groups

Interdisciplinary programming working groups are offered through various research centers across campus, and provide students with an opportunity to learn from and collaborate with faculty and graduate students in other departments.

* Some skills serve in the development of more than one competency. Some skills may apply more to one discipline than to another. Keep in mind that the list of skills and steps you can take to develop these competencies is not exhaustive.


Advanced Knowledge skill-building workshops & events

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Selected resources to help deepen your Advanced Knowledge skills

Resource Provided By
Empirical Research Methods Workshops Center for the Study of Law and Society
BIDS Video Archive Berkeley Institute for Data Science (BIDS)
Consultations on Academic Writing Graduate Writing Center
Graduate Services in Doe Library UC Berkeley Libraries
Berkeley Library Guides & Tutorials UC Berkeley Libraries
Working Groups at D-Lab D-Lab
D-Lab Newsletter D-Lab
Protection of Human Subjects Student Investigators Guide Office for the Protection of Human Subjects
Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Training at D-Lab D-Lab

More Resources